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The Composition Of CNC Machine Tools
Jun 15, 2018

CNC machine tools generally consist of input and output devices, numerical control devices (CNC), servo units, drive devices (or actuators), programmable logic controllers (PLCs), and electrical control devices, auxiliary devices, machine tools, and measurement devices.

(1) CNC machine tool plant input and output devices. It is an interactive device that the machine tool CNC system and operators exchange information and realize human-machine dialogue. The function of the input device is to turn the numerical control code on the program carrier into a corresponding electrical pulse signal, which is transmitted to the co-located digital control device. The role of the output device is: the numerical control system provides the operator with the necessary information through the display. The displayed information can be the program being edited, coordinate values, and alarm signals.

(2) Numerical control device (CNC device). The core of computer numerical control system is composed of hardware and software. It receives the pulse signal coming from the input device. After the signal is compiled, calculated and processed by the system software or logic circuit of the numerical control device, it outputs various signals and commands to control various parts of the machine tool to make it behave. Sequence of actions.

(3) Programmable logic controller (PLC). The numerical control machine tool completes the control function through the CNC and the PLC, among them, the CNC mainly completes the functions related to the digital operation and the management, such as the editing of the part program, the interpolation operation, the decoding, the position servo control of the tool movement and the like.

(4) Servo unit. The servo unit receives the speed and displacement commands from the numerical control device. These instructions are converted and amplified by the servo unit and converted into the speed, direction and displacement of the feed motion of the machine tool through the drive device.

(5) Drive device. The drive device converts the command signal amplified by the servo unit into a mechanical motion, and drives the machine tool table through the mechanical connecting part, so that the worktable is accurately positioned or rigorously moved according to the specified trajectory, and the shape, size and precision are processed to meet the requirements. Components.

(6) Machine tool body. That is, the mechanical parts of CNC machine tools, including the main moving parts, feed movement executing parts (tables, carriages and their transmission parts) and supporting parts (beds, columns, etc.), also include cooling, lubrication, indexing and clamping Functional auxiliary devices.

In addition, to ensure the full play of CNC machine tools, there are auxiliary systems such as cooling systems, lubrication systems, hydraulic (or pneumatic) systems, chip removal systems, and protection systems.